What is Metadata with easy examples

Metadata is simply data about data. It means it is a description and context of the data. It helps to organize, find and understand data. Here are a few real world examples of metadata:

Typical metadata

Those are some typical metadata elements:

  1. Title and description,
  2. Tags and categories,
  3. Who created and when,
  4. Who last modified and when,
  5. Who can access or update.

A photo

Every time you take a photo with today’s cameras a bunch of metadata is gathered and saved with it:

  • date and time,
  • filename,
  • camera settings,
  • geolocation.

A book

Each book has a number of standard metadata on the covers and inside. This includes:

  • a title,
  • author name,
  • publisher and copyright details,
  • description on a back,
  • table of contents,
  • index,
  • page numbers.

A blog post

Every blog post has standard metadata fields that are usually at before first paragraph. This includes:

  • title,
  • author,
  • published time,
  • category,
  • tags.


Every email you send or receive has a number of metadata fields, many of which are hidden in the message header and not visible to you in your mail client. This metadata includes:

  • subject,
  • from,
  • to,
  • date and time sent,
  • sending and receiving server names and IPs,
  • format (plain text of HTLM),
  • anti-spam software details.

Word document

Every word processing software collects some standard metadata and enables you to add your own fields for each document. Typical fields are:

  • title,
  • subject,
  • author,
  • company,
  • status,
  • creation date and time,
  • last modification date and time,
  • number of pages.

A spreadsheet

Spreadsheets contain a few metadata fields:

  • tab names,
  • table names,
  • column names,
  • user comments.

Relational database

Relational databases (most common type of database) store and provide access not only data but also metadata in a structure called data dictionary or system catalog. It holds information about:

  • tables,
  • columns,
  • data types,
  • constraints
  • table relationships,
  • and many more

Document and share database metadata

Extract metadata from databases, document schema and share across your orgranization in convenient HTML with Dataedo.

Computer files

All the fields you see by each file in file explorer is actually metadata. The actual data is inside those files. Metadata includes:

  • file name,
  • type,
  • size,
  • creation date and time,
  • last modification date and time.

Web page

Every web page has a number of metadata fields:

  • page title,
  • page description,
  • icon.

Paper files

Paper document files have often administrative metadata that help manage documents. This might include:

  • letter for files organized alphabetically,
  • access control information (“classified” for instance),
  • logos.

Establishing an FTP Connection from the Command Prompt


  • Windows (All Versions)


Sometimes when troubleshooting a connection problem, it may be helpful to attempt an FTP connection from the Windows command prompt (or in Windows Explorer).

To initiate an FTP session from the Windows command prompt, follow these steps:

  1. Establish an Internet connection as you normally do.
  2. Click Start, and then click Run.
    • In Windows 7, Vista, NT, 2000, or XP, type cmd and then click OK.
    • In Windows 95, 98 or ME, type command and then click OK.
  3. A command prompt will appear in a new window.
  4. Type ftp <insert your FTP host address here>
    • Example: C:\ftp ftp.globalscape.com
  5. Press Enter.
  6. If the initial connection is successful, you should be prompted for a username. Type it in and press Enter again. (If connecting anonymously, type anonymous)
  7. You should now be prompted for a password. Type it in and press Enter once more. NOTE: For security reasons, you will not be able to see your password as you type it. (If connecting anonymously, use your email address as the password)
  8. If all is well, then you should now be connected to the remote FTP site.
  9. Type dir and then press Enter to see a list of files and folders.
  10. To end your FTP session, type quit and press Enter.

If you cannot connect this way, then depending on the results, you may be using incorrect login details (host address, username or password), or you may need to configure your firewall.

The following screenshot illustrates a successful connection to ftp.globalscape.com via the command prompt.

What is a patch?

A patch is a structured file that consists of a list of differences between one set of files and another. All code changes, additions, or deletions to Drupal core and contributed modules/themes between developers are done through patches.

Patches make development easier, because instead of supplying a replacement file, possibly consisting of thousands of lines of code, the patch includes only the exact changes that were made. In effect, a patch is a list of all the changes made to a file, which can be used to re-create those changes on another copy of that file.