Difference between Smart Home and connected Home

Connected Home:
All your electronics applicances and devices in your home, office etc were connected in Internet. So In connected home you can able to control all your devices from everywhere, but it won’t operate on its own. Smart home will learn our behaviour and it perform necessary action according to our expectation before you plan to do.


Smart Home:

It’s actually quite simple. Existing connected products, from those in the home to in our car, don’t communicate with each other very well. To make our homes (and lives) smart, they all need to talk and interact with each other, seamlessly.

Here’s how smart home work. At the moment, a connected thermostat learns your regular movements, so it makes sure the house is warm when you get home at six. But it’ll probably be freezing if you come home unexpectedly at 4. The smart home would have had a good conversation with your car to know you were headed home early, and that it’s because you’re not feeling well, then adjust everything accordingly — if you had a fever, you wouldn’t want a baking house. To get the same result in the connected home, actions are required on your part and forget about any of it working if someone else is already home and has changed the settings already.


16×2 LCD display pin diagram and its pin descriptions

A 16×2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5×7 pixel matrix. This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data.

The command register stores the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD.
Pin diagram
Pin description
 Pin No
Ground (0V)
Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V)
Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor
Selects command register when low; and data register when high
Register Select
Low to write to the register; High to read from the register
Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given
8-bit data pins
Backlight VCC (5V)
Backlight Ground (0V)

Example LCD interface with Arduino UNO pin diagram


Difference between the speed and the torque of a motor?

Speed is a measure of how far something travels in a given period of time. The rate of change in position. For a motor, speed is measured in revolutions per minute.

Torque is force exerted as an object rotates. To turn a motor shaft requires a certain amount of torque. If a load is added to the shaft, more torque is required to turn it.


1. Two motors of different sizes may run at the same speed. A shaded-pole motor (example: window fan) exerts very little torque. A common speed is 1800 or 1200 RPM.

2. A large industrial motor (example; factory conveyor belt) may exert a very high torque in order to start a heavy load, and yet it runs at a similar speed.

Another example: The same is true of engines. An eight cylinder car engine can run at 3600 RPM and exert a great amount of torque. A small generator will run at 3600 RPM, but not exert nearly as much torque as the car.

In General, I put the above in simple and easy words like
Speed is the rotational rate of a motor.
Torque is the amount of force it can apply at a given distance.
usually the specification would be so much torque can be developed at some rotational  speed.

The torque can be increased by slowing down the motor using some force multipling means as a gearbox or a belt and pulley system. Likewise the torque can be decreased by speeding up the motor the same way (gearbox or pulleys).

What is called AVL on my CRT TV?

It is Not “Audio Volume Leveler”, It Is  Automatic Volume Leveling.

Audio Volume Leveler (AVL) maintains a consistent sound level set by the viewer regardless of the channel or program. If you find yourself constantly changing the volume (ie turning it down for gunshots and then up for dialogue; turning volume up for programming and then back down for loud commercials) you should turn on the AVL. You won’t hear as much of a range in volumes when you have the AVL turned on, which may be a bad thing if you watch a lot of music videos or listen to music channels.


what is CR-LF?

CR-LF means Carriage return – Line feed

This Line terminator CR+LF is a protocol dates back to the days of teletypewriters.

CR stands for “carriage return” – the CR control character returned the print head (“carriage”) to column 0 without advancing the paper.

LF stands for “linefeed” – the LF control character advanced the paper one line without moving the print head. So if you wanted to return the print head to column zero (ready to print the next line) and advance the paper (so it prints on fresh paper), you need both CR and LF.

To Put in a simple words–  CR would return the cursor to the first position of the line and  LF would feed to the next line or Carriage return – Send the cursor (print-head on old teletype systems) to the beginning of the line.Line feed – Advance the terminal one line (advance the paper one line) to next line.


How to Check if a Remote Control is working or not

Many households have 5 or 6 remote controls laying around the house. Sometimes, it stops working and you don’t know what happened.

Most remote controls use infrared light to transmit the signal. The human eye cannot see this light, however a camera can. follow below steps to check whether your remote is working or not

step 1:
Take the remote control that you think are not working
Take a digital camera or cell phone with a camera.
step 2:
Turn the camera on mobile phone, all you need to do is look at the mobile camera  while performing the process.
step 3:
Point the remote towards the lens of your mobile camera as you would when pointing the remote towards the TV. similar to below picture
step 4:

Press and hold any button on the remote while viewing the screen on the camera, you can able to see blue shade light on your mobile camera screen. see below picture for how the light will look like,
Note: some buttons may not transmit signals via default. Best button to try first is the power button.
Before pressing any button on the  remote, In your mobile phone camera screen, you can’t able to any glow on the LED.
Before pressing and hold any button the  remote. In your mobile phone camera screen, you can able see the blue/violet LED glow. It says that your remote is working perfectly. Even after if there is no light, your remote gone bad.

working of momentary switch/Tactile momentary switch/contact switch and toggle switch

Here we are going to see two different switch working.

1.momentary switch/Tactile momentary switch/contact switch all are same

2. Toggle switch

1.Momentary switch/Tactile momentary switch/contact switch

A momentary switch has a spring, such that if no force is applied the contact will be open. Applying force continuously will close the contact on the momentary switch.

2. Toggle switch

A toggle switch can be placed in either the open or closed state, and force is required to change from open to closed or from closed to open.

How to connect the momentary switch/Tactile momentary switch/contact switch in a solderless breadboard

momentary switch/Tactile momentary switch/contact switch all are same. Now got an knowledge about the three technical names of single switch my friend.

Push-button with annotation

All of the ones I’ve used have been SPST switches with the 2 legs that point toward each other connected together in electrically identical pairs; the switching is done from pair to pair.

Note: see closely the above pic info –  pin shape and its leg facing direction, you can easily discriminate the how the connection will be inside the switch

picture below will show you the internal connection of diagram

Quick info: In case of tactile switch, don’t worry about pin number, all you need to know/understand is which two pins are connected together

These switches were designed for printed circuit boards, not solderless breadboards, but they’ll work OK if you straighten the pins a little bit.

For working of momentary switch/Tactile momentary switch/contact switch, follow my next post