What is Bias Voltage?

Bias voltage is the amount of voltage that an electronic device needs in order to power on and function.

Bias Voltage

Without bias voltage, an electronic device wouldn’t have the power to turn on and be operated. A microphone is one such device which needs bias voltage in order to operate. If a microphone doesn’t receive this power, it can’t record any signals and thus it’s inoperable. You can think of it as the same for any electronic device, such as a gameboy or flashlight, which need batteries in order to operate. Without the batteries, which is the power source, the devices can’t turn on and do their tasks.

Bias voltage must be carefully chosen to operate the device, meaning the power to operate the device must be at a specific level. With too little bias voltage, the power that is sent to the device may be insufficient to turn it on and, thus, the device will not power on. With too much bias voltage, the device may receive too much current and can be destroyed. Check with the manufacturer of the device in use to check how much bias voltage it should receive.

Feeding the Correct Level of Bias Voltage to a Device

Bias voltage is the voltage that a device and needs and is designed to receive in order to function properly.

In this article, we will examine one such device that is completely dependent on specific bias voltage in order to operate, microphones. We will use microphones as an example of how an electronic device needs bias voltage and at a specific level in order to operate correctly.

Microphones usually need about 2 volts in order to power on. However, check your datasheet for the power requirements of the microphone in use to be sure of the bias voltage needed for operation. Some microphones will need more voltage.

When designing a microphone circuit, be sure that the microphone receives this level of voltage. If a microphone receives lower than this amount of voltage, it may not be enough power for it to sufficient record signals. Thus, it may record signals very low. If a microphone receives too much voltage, it may become damaged and destroyed by the excess voltage. Thus, it’s important to design the circuit properly with the necessary voltage distribution so that the microphone receives just around its rated voltage.
Microphone Bias Voltage

The bias voltage provided to this microphone allows it to power on and function at an operable level. Thus, you can see the extreme use of bias voltage for electronic components or devices.

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